Miniature MS has revolutionized the way researchers see biological systems, particularly since techniques for miniature MS have been developed to identify and study proteins. Using high-throughput, quantitative MS proteomics workflows, researchers have virtually broadened the knowledge base on protein structure and function. Miniature MS can also be used to evaluate the microbes underwater, as a Harvard University study previously reported. This study used a miniature mass spectrometer to examine the effect of microbes on hydrogen and methane content of the ocean.
Clinical and Biomedical Applications
Stanford Research Systems worked with the researchers to develop a commercial quadrupole mass analyzer and custom gas extractor to complete the mission. Improvements in simplicity of design and size reductions of these spectrometers have allowed for improvements in medical diagnoses, contraband discovery, and high-consequence fieldable applications, just to name a few examples of miniaturized mass spectrometer applicability. An advancement in reconceptualizing mass spectrometers include microfabricated arrays of mass analyzers on a chip, enabling higher sensitivity and inherit selectivity of mass spectrometry for data analysis.
According to Blain MG et al, the miniaturization of the mass analyzer itself, including its design, characterization, and fabrication, is the first step towards building a complete and efficient micro-MS system. Their results have been incorporated into the overall miniaturization of small-scale mass spectrometers. At Pittcon , R. Graham Cooks will discuss a number of miniature MS-related topics associated with ionization methods for miniature mass spectrometry.
The session also features discussions about extended mass ranges and linear mass scans, and the illustration of data of biological and forensic applications are also demonstrated. Cooks will also explore paper spray PS and desorption electrospray DESI ionization methods that are used to assist in diagnosing and monitoring treatments with miniature mass spectrometry.
Other topics covered by speakers at Pittcon include:. Desorption electrospray ionization DESI , low temperature plasma LTP , and paper spray PS ionization represent three prime examples of the complementary ionization techniques used in miniature MS sampling and data analyzation. DESI is a versatile analytical method for a variety of compounds and helpful for tissue imaging; LTP is important for in-field applications; PS is highly compatible for sample cartridge design and is attractive for quantitative analysis in regulatory and medical situations.
DESI has been used for direct analysis of explosives, pharmaceutical ingredients, drugs found within body fluids, and agrochemicals.
Mass spectrometry-based multiplex protein quantification platforms
For this ionization method, charge droplets are used for ionizing the analyte molecule in a small sample. To generate a high-velocity-charged droplet that will affect the sample, sheath gas and a high DC voltage electrospray are used. Explosives found on surfaces, ingredients in seed and fruit oils, and agrochemical identification are all examples of the applicability of LTP. This ambient ionization method uses active species produced in low-power plasma to both desorb and ionize analytes in samples that are untreated.
Low-temperature plasma is produced by dielectric barrier discharge; helium, nitrogen, argon, or air is transferred through an alternating electric field. A device is used to enable extraction of the plasma species out of the discharge region to allow for sampling chemicals on a surface. Low gas flow rate, the ability to use air as discharge gas, ability to sample large areas, and minimal to now sampling angle requirement make LTP an advantageous ionization method. For a quick, low-cost ionization and sampling method, PS is often the first choice for quantitative and qualitative MS study of mixtures featuring highly complex structures.
This method produces ions from samples directly and is applied on a paper substrate. Paper has been widely accepted as a good material for storage of samples and is often used in methods of chromatographic separation. The application of a spray solvent featuring high voltage and small volume onto a porous substrate generates analyte ions. Then, the sample is either mixed into the spray solution or is preloaded onto the paper. The observation of a spray plume occurs.
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Signal intensity depends on the geometry of the paper; change the cut angle on the paper tip can affect the efficiency of the ionization. Beyond the science of miniature MS, the structures of the spectrometers continue to get smaller and more reliable in terms of analytical results. Continual improvements in the simplicity of miniaturizing mass spectrometers have been essential for a wide range of fieldable applications.
Austin and his research team have developed approaches using lithographically patterned plates as a unique method for producing mass analyzers. Additionally, this approach has been used to shrink linear ion traps, radiofrequency quadrupole, electrostatic ion beam traps, and toroidal.
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Currently, their team is working on making charge detector arrays using the patterned-plates method, bypassing using machined electrodes as a means for producing cost-efficient products. His research team will further discuss the production of the wire ion trap, describing how replacing four of the hyperbolic electrodes of the conventional linear ion trap with wires of microns in diameter is a step toward trap production. Their development approach of the trap involves using 2-dimensional positioning without interfering with trap accuracy or trapping capacity.
Miniature MS tools can also be applied in electrophoresis applications. Ramsey of UNC at Chapel Hill will also lead a talk at Pittcon that will provide an overview of miniature MS analyzers for the performance of capillary electrophoresis. The analysis of blood for glycated hemoglobin and the examination of bioreactor broth for the detection and identification of amino acids are two such examples of applications that will be explored. One of the most popular mass analyzer choices for producing miniature MS systems are quadrupole mass analyzers. Research and product development teams at PerkinElmer, in turn, have produced a portable device containing a mass analyzing trapping field.
The product features a low thermal mass capillary gas chromatograph and high-speed temperature programming. Customized miniature mass spectrometers are also being offered by some companies, including Hamamatsu, a manufacturer of products used in spectroscopy. The head of these fingertip-sized spectrometers support a long wavelength region nm and are highly sensitive. This unique and minute size has allowed easy incorporation into a variety of instruments in the medical and scientific fields.
The miniature spectrometers from Hamamatsu are also compatible with portable mobile devices. Also, Hamamatsu offers a series of spectrometer heads that can be integrated into equipment, providing a reflective grating and CMOS image sensor that is designed for use in visible measurements. The size of these mini spectrometers, like the ones by Hamamatsu, measure The spectral response range is between and nm to nm for the CMA and are trigger-compatible. In chemical analysis, pharmaceutical applications, and forensics, MS serves a powerful study tool that will certainly continue toward improving research on all fronts.
Miniature mass spectrometers are quickly emerging as a powerful adjunct in research and are easy to use and highly sensitive. Their ability to be used outside of the laboratory by untrained professionals across many different subsets of science broadens its use. Smaller systems than those that are currently available must be made to perform more complex, intricate procedures. With smaller devices, physicians may also be able to monitor therapeutic drug administration during surgery in at-risk patients.
In something like the Mini 12, a miniature ion trap mass spectrometer is combined with paper spray ionization. Inside a sample cartridge, a blood sample is placed on the paper substrate. Researchers can push this sample into the system, which then adds an organic solvent to the cartridge.
Then, a 4 kV voltage is applied. The elution of organic compounds and spray ionization then occurs on the paper substrate at its tip.
Exactly two MS-MS scans are performed on the analyte and internal standard. Future miniature analytical systems may also be used more frequently by non-professionals, or non-instrumentalists. Analytical chemists can apply their knowledge regarding chromatography to these systems in time, enabling for further development of miniature mass spectrometers.
Helping these chemists move beyond liquid chromatography columns to sample cartridges that can provide real-time extraction and ionization may also be important in the next few years. While the future of miniature MS systems appears promising, selling these products on a large scale may be challenging.
Many instrument companies have difficulty transitioning into the production of small systems. The integration of ambient ionization into miniature mass spectrometers has advanced in the past few years and continues to be used to develop systems that can be operated by non-experts. One study previously described how combining DESI with a miniature mass spectrometer could potentially develop a brand new instrument in the near future.
This instrument may enable direct evaluation of samples of practically any type in an ambient environment. Applications, according to authors of the paper, may be diverse.
Trends in biochemical and biomedical applications of mass spectrometry - PDF Free Download
For example, such a device could be used to indicate disease type, detect the content and toxicity of dangerous compounds on surfaces and in water, and examine tissues for tumor margins via lipid distribution examination in tissue sections. There are some initiatives in place for using miniature mass spectrometers to advance the United States space program.
Studying planetary atmospheres and their composition as well as monitoring the quality of air on space missions are two primary application fields for miniature MS. Since systems used in the space program need to be portable, lightweight, and have a high level of sensitivity, miniature mass spectrometers make for the perfect analytical systems to be used in future space study programs. MS instruments for space applications include time-of-flight, sector instruments, quadrupole ion traps, quadrupole arrays, and cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometers. Portability and ease-of-use are perhaps two of the most common reasons physicians wish to use miniature MS instead of the larger MS instruments.
The ability to use an instrument onsite or at the bedside are also important for retrieving data quickly. Also, the ability to use these MS products without having to learn a complicated analytical method makes miniature MS an attractive option for the clinical environment. Rapid data retrieval and analysis, two key benefits of many miniature MS methods, also play a role in facilitating the development of this technology. To overcome the size and weight limitations in conventional MS tools, miniaturized versions continue to be developed. Many miniaturized instruments can provide in-depth analysis of metabolites or disease state efficiently and reliably, and the market for these products has grown exponentially in the past few decades.
Each company will not only provide visual and hands-on product demonstrations, but also give new insights into current applications in science, forensics, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries. Also featured at Pittcon are leading researchers in the field of MS and spectrometer miniaturization, including R. More than sessions are devoted specifically to mass spectrometry and cover a broad range of industries and fields, including medicine and surgery, forensics, and chemical safety. Scientists involved in every industry and environment and who are interested in learning more about new MS technology for compound identification and analysis are encouraged to attend this informative annual event.
About Us Contact Us Press. Imaging technologies play a key role in many branches of science, especially in biology and medicine.
They provide an invaluable insight into both internal structure and processes within a broad range of samples. There are many techniques that allow one to obtain images of an object. Different techniques are based on the analysis of a particular sample property by means of a dedicated imaging system, and as such, each imaging modality provides the researcher with different information.
The use of multimodal imaging imaging with several different techniques can provide additional and complementary information that is not possible when employing a single imaging technique alone. In this study, we present for the first time a multi-modal imaging technique where X-ray computerized tomography CT is combined with mass spectrometry imaging MSI.
The aim of the work is to demonstrate how molecular information from MSI can be spatially correlated with 3D structural information acquired from X-ray CT. In these experiments, frozen samples are imaged in an X-ray CT setup using Medipix based detectors equipped with a CO2 cooled sample holder.
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Single projections are pre-processed before tomographic reconstruction using a signal-to-thickness calibration. The combination of two vastly different imaging approaches provides complementary information i.