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Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

The languages and linguistics of Europe : a comprehensive guide - Semantic Scholar

Received Jun 13; Accepted Sep This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. S2 Appendix: List of typological grids, and feature variants with description and ID number.

S3 Appendix: Blocks of interdependent feature variants. Abstract Feature stability, time and tempo of change, and the role of genealogy versus areality in creating linguistic diversity are important issues in current computational research on linguistic typology. Introduction The extended Indo-European linguistic area is unique: no other area of the world is richer in documentation of ancient languages. Materials and methods 2.

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Rationale The rationale behind DiACL Typology can be summarized as follows: we believe that diachronic typology can be studied independent of reconstructed morphology [ 1 ] and that the factors such as genealogy, areal influence, or system-internal pressure can be evaluated statistically based on this data [ 2 — 7 ].

Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Language map. Principles of selecting and organizing features Languages, like biological populations, inherit traits with modification from their ancestors, diverge into distinct lineages, go extinct, and engage in horizontal transfer, and accordingly linguistic phylogenetics and allied computational historical methods draw extensively on techniques pioneered in biological systematics [ 16 — 22 ].

Fig 2. Fig 3. DiACL database overview. Fig 4. Typology subsection of DiACL. Diagram of the design of the Typology subsection of the database. Table 2 Explanation of coding variants of alignment [ 51 ]. Infrastructure 3. Language and Language metadata The central entity Language of the DiACL database has as its attributes some of the metadata which is stored for each language.

Implementation The database resides in Microsoft SQL Server , making use of several of its specialized data types for recording hierarchical and geographical information.

The languages and linguistics of Europe : a comprehensive guide

Fig 5. Online interface of DiACL. Fig 6. Typological dendrogram of Eurasian languages. Fig 7. Linguistic distance against geographic distance. Fig 8. Linguistic distance against chronological distance. Fig 9. Linguistic distance of language families. Supporting information S1 Appendix List of languages and language metadata.

XLSX Click here for additional data file. S2 Appendix List of typological grids, and feature variants with description and ID number. S3 Appendix Blocks of interdependent feature variants. TXT Click here for additional data file. References 1. Viti C. Historical syntax: Problems, materials, methods, hypotheses In: Viti C, editor. Perspectives on Historical Syntax. Amsterdam—Philadelphia: John Benjamins; Mixed effect models for genetic and areal dependencies in linguistic typology.

Linguistic Typology. Dediu D, Levinson SC. Nichols J. Linguistic diversity in space and time: Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago: Univ. Universal typological dependencies should be detectable in the history of language families. Evolved structure of language shows lineage-specific trends in word-order universals.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Gray R. Think Big! Haug D. Treebanks in historical linguistic research In: Viti C, editor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Matras Y. Romani: a linguistic introduction : Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Scandoromani: remnants of a mixed language : Leiden: Brill, Language trees support the express-train sequence of Austronesian expansion. Pagel M. The evolutionary emergence of language: social function and the origins of linguistic form.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Bowern C, Atkinson Q. Computational phylogenetics and the internal structure of Pama-Nyungan. Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis supports the Indo-European steppe hypothesis. Huelsenbeck JP. Systematic Biology. Chao YR.

The non-uniqueness of phonemic solutions of phonetic systems. Lass R. Vowel system universals and typology: prologue to theory. Dresher BE. The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Cambridge;: Cambridge University Press; Haspelmath M. Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in crosslinguistic studies. Hyman L. What else depends on phonology?. On the design, in practice, of typological microvariables. Bickel B, Nichols J. Autotypologizing Databases and their Use in Fieldwork. Bickel B.

Typology in the 21st century: Major current developments. Capturing particulars and universals in clause linkage. In: Bril I, editor. Amsterdam: Benjamins; Round ER. Big data typology and linguistic phylogenetics: design principles for valid datasets. Co, Auwera Johan van d. Berlin—Boston: Mouton de Gruyter; Haase M. Daniel M, Lander Y. Ebert KH. Masica CP. The Indo-Aryan languages. Dryer MS. Greenbergian Word Order Correlations. Engel U. Deutsche Grammatik. Heidelberg: Julius Groos; Modern Irish grammatical structure and dialectal variation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.

Press; Laka I. Ergativity Emerging Issues.

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Dordrecht: Springer; Vamling K. Complementation in Georgian. Lund: Lund Univ. Bauer B. Archaic syntax in Indo-European: the spread of transitivity in Latin and French. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Dixon RMW. Basic linguistic theory Vol. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Greenberg JH. Cambridge, Mass. Language universals: with special reference to feature hierarchies : The Hague: Mouton, Capturing particulars and universals in clause linkage: a multivariate analysis In: Bril I, editor. Cysouw M. Understanding transition probabilities. Appraches to Measuring Linguistic Differences.

Beyond binary dependencies in language structure In: Enfield N, editor. Dependencies in Language. Dediu D, Cysouw M.


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Cristofaro S. Implicational universals and dependencies In: Enfield NJ, editor. Dependencies in language. Berlin: Language Science Press; Enfield NJ. Dependencies in language On the causal ontology of linguistic systems. Areal pressure in grammatical evolution. Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Nichols J, Warnow T.

Tutorial on computational linguistic phylogeny. Language and Linguistics Compass. Dunn M. The Routlegde Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Florence: Routledge; La relation entre la distance spatiale et la distance lexicale. Revue de Linguistique Romane. R package gdistance: distances and routes on geographic grids. Gooskens C, editor Norwegian dialect distances geographically explained. Haynie H. Nerbonne J.

Data-driven dialectology. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. NW Caucasian. The agent A of a transitive-active verb bears the same marking as the subject S of an intransitive-active verb. The subject S of an intransitive-active verb bears the same marking as the subject S of an intransitive-stative verb.

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