Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
The languages and linguistics of Europe : a comprehensive guide - Semantic Scholar
Received Jun 13; Accepted Sep This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. S2 Appendix: List of typological grids, and feature variants with description and ID number.
S3 Appendix: Blocks of interdependent feature variants. Abstract Feature stability, time and tempo of change, and the role of genealogy versus areality in creating linguistic diversity are important issues in current computational research on linguistic typology. Introduction The extended Indo-European linguistic area is unique: no other area of the world is richer in documentation of ancient languages. Materials and methods 2.
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Rationale The rationale behind DiACL Typology can be summarized as follows: we believe that diachronic typology can be studied independent of reconstructed morphology [ 1 ] and that the factors such as genealogy, areal influence, or system-internal pressure can be evaluated statistically based on this data [ 2 — 7 ].
Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Language map. Principles of selecting and organizing features Languages, like biological populations, inherit traits with modification from their ancestors, diverge into distinct lineages, go extinct, and engage in horizontal transfer, and accordingly linguistic phylogenetics and allied computational historical methods draw extensively on techniques pioneered in biological systematics [ 16 — 22 ].
Fig 2. Fig 3. DiACL database overview. Fig 4. Typology subsection of DiACL. Diagram of the design of the Typology subsection of the database. Table 2 Explanation of coding variants of alignment [ 51 ]. Infrastructure 3. Language and Language metadata The central entity Language of the DiACL database has as its attributes some of the metadata which is stored for each language.
Implementation The database resides in Microsoft SQL Server , making use of several of its specialized data types for recording hierarchical and geographical information.
The languages and linguistics of Europe : a comprehensive guide
Fig 5. Online interface of DiACL. Fig 6. Typological dendrogram of Eurasian languages. Fig 7. Linguistic distance against geographic distance. Fig 8. Linguistic distance against chronological distance. Fig 9. Linguistic distance of language families. Supporting information S1 Appendix List of languages and language metadata.
XLSX Click here for additional data file. S2 Appendix List of typological grids, and feature variants with description and ID number. S3 Appendix Blocks of interdependent feature variants. TXT Click here for additional data file. References 1. Viti C. Historical syntax: Problems, materials, methods, hypotheses In: Viti C, editor. Perspectives on Historical Syntax. Amsterdam—Philadelphia: John Benjamins; Mixed effect models for genetic and areal dependencies in linguistic typology.
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Cristofaro S. Implicational universals and dependencies In: Enfield NJ, editor. Dependencies in language. Berlin: Language Science Press; Enfield NJ. Dependencies in language On the causal ontology of linguistic systems. Areal pressure in grammatical evolution. Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Nichols J, Warnow T.
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